It is a surgical procedure meant to occlude or block the Fallopian tubes. It is one of the permanent methods of sterilisation or family planning.
- Laparoscopy: Small one or two 5mm holes are made in the abdomen through which a tube (telescope) is passed and pelvic organs (uterus and Fallopian tubes) are visualised. Falope rings are applied over tubes to occlude them. Tubes could also be disconnected from uterus or cut and a segment of the tube removed (tubectomy) to cause sterilisation.
- Mini lap: Small 1 to 2inches cut is made in the lower part of the abdomen below navel and the abdomen is opened in layers. Tubes are visualised cut, ligated and a segment of the tube removed(tubectomy).
- Laparotomy: Larger incision of 6 to 10 cm cut is made in the lower part of the abdomen below navel and the abdomen is opened in layers. Tubes are visualised cut, ligated and a segment of the tube removed(tubectomy).
- Caesarean ligation: It is done during the the caesarean surgery. Tubes are visualised cut, ligated and a segment of the tube removed(tubectomy).
It is usually a day care procedure. You will be asked to come on empty stomach in the morning for admission. Procedure is done under minimal anaesthetic care (MAC) where you would be put to sleep for a short while or under spinal anaesthesia (with a small injection given to the back).You will be made to drink , eat food and walk a few hours after the procedure and shall be sent home by evening.You will be prescribed oral medicines to take at home after the procedure.
Tubal ligation is a relatively safe procedure, however there is a small risk of complications like bowel , bladder or intraabdominal injuries , infection, bleeding, anaesthesia and drug related complications. It is a myth that tubal ligation is associated with weight gain or irregular cycles. There is no scientific evidence to say that.
No method of Contraception , permanent or temporary is 100 percent fool proof. There is a small failure rate associated with all methods which is the lowest with tubal ligation around 3 to 4 per 1000 procedures. Failure is also associated with pregnancies in the Fallopian tube (ectopic pregnancy) which are not normal and need to be treated immediately.